Upper endoscopy (esophagogastroduodenoscopy, EGD) is a procedure using a thin fiberoptic tube with a light at the end that allows visual examination of the esophagus (food pipe), stomach, and the upper part of the small intestine. This procedure helps to diagnose conditions such as esophagitis, Helicobacter pylori infection, ulcers, esophageal and gastric cancers, celiac disease and other illnesses of the upper gastrointestinal tract.
Colonoscopy is a procedure utilizing a fiberotic tube (colonoscope) that is inserted through the anus and rectum to view the entire colon (large intestine) and the final portion of the small intestine (terminal ileum). This is the “gold standard” test used for colorectal cancer screening. This procedure also diagnoses different types of colitis (Crohn’s, ulcerative, microscopic), diverticulosis, and detects polyps.
Flexible sigmoidoscopy is a procedure in which the last 25 inches (50-60 cm) of the colon are examined in a similar way as colonoscopy; it is a partial colonoscopy. It is used to assess internal hemorrhoids and any abnormalities in the lining of the colorectal area.
Biopsy is taken during endoscopic procedures, tissue samples (small snips) can be collected to determine the nature of any possible abnormal areas visualized on these tests. The biopsies are sent for pathological analysis.
Polypectomy is a procedure that can be performed during upper endoscopy or colonoscopy to remove a polyp. A polyp is a growth in any part of the gastrointestinal tract that is usually benign but can be cancerous. After it is removed, it is sent for pathological analysis to determine if it is benign or not.